Unit 1 Second Nine Weeks: Ancient Greece
(www.phillipmartin.com)Ancient Greece: SOLs Click on each link to find a study map for each SOL.
Essential Understandings:
WHI.5a Geography and Expansion of Greece
  • The physical geography of the Aegean Basin shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization.
  • The expansion of Greek civilization, through trade and colonization, led to the spread of Hellenistic culture across the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
WHI.5b Greek Mythology
  • Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to the culture, politics, and art in ancient Greece.
  • Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, works, and idealized images come from ancient Greek mythology.

WHI.5c Social Structure
  • Classical Athens developed the most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision-making. It became a foundation of modern democracies.
  • Contrasting philosophies of government divided the Greek city-states of Athens (democracy) and Sparta (oligarchy).

WHI.5d Persian War Peloponnesian War
  • The Greeks defeated the Persian empire and preserved their political independence.
  • Competition between Sparta and Athens for control of Greece helped cause the Peloponnesian War.
WHI.5e/f Classic Era/Golden Age
  • Athenian culture, during the Classic Era, became one of the foundation stones of Western civilization.
WHI.5g Post Peloponnesian
  • The Macedonian conquest of Greece followed the weakening of Greek defenses during the Peloponnesian Wars.
  • Alexander the Great adopted Greek culture and spread Hellenistic influences throughout his vast empire.

Unit Vocabulary
Aegean Sea: located to the right of Greek mainland
Balkan peninsula: located in SE Europe, surrounded by Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea and the Sea of Marmara
Peloponnesus: southern peninsula of Greece that is mountainous
Dardanelles: strait linking Aegean Sea with Sea of Marmora

Barter: exchanging goods or services for other goods or services

Polis: city-state

Colonization: settle and establish political control

Zeus: head god of all gods, god of weather Read the link for more information: Zeus
Hera: wife of Zeus, goddess of marriage Link: Hera
Apollo: god of the sun Link: Apollo
Artemis: goddess of the moon Link: Artemis

Athena: goddess of wisdom and war Link: Athena

Aphrodite: goddess of love and beauty Link: Aphrodite

Monarchy: form of government headed by a monarch

Aristocracy: highest class

Tyranny: cruel and oppressive rule that obtains power through force

Democracy: government where the people vote

Oligarchy: rule by a small group of people

Marathon: victory for the Greeks in the Persian Wars Link to Battle of Marathon: Marathon

Salamis – strait: Athenian victory in the Persian Wars Link for Salamis: Salamis

Delian League: formed by several Greek city-states, headed by Athens, to protect against the Persians

Peloponnesian League: alliance of the Peloponnesus in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE

Pericles: Golden Age for Athens, increased democracy, rebuilt Athens after Persian War, and ordered Parthenon to be built.
The following link gives a six part slide show describing the role of Pericles. Pericles

Parthenon: Greek sculptor who sculpted the statue of Zeus at Olympia

Aeschylus: one of the first to use a second actor in his plays

Sophocles: wrote Antigone, Oedipus Rex
Link to read about Sophocles: Sophocles

Homer: wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey

Herodotus: “Father of History”

Thucydides: historian

Phidias: sculptor who created the statue of Zeus of Olympia

Doric: sturdy, plain top column

Ionic: elegant, scroll-like design at top of this column

Corinthian: very elaborate, usually seen on Roman temples

Archimedes: mathematician who computed pi

Hippocrates: doctor who developed Hippocratic Oath

Euclid: “father of geometry”

Pythagoras: first proof for a right triangle a2 + b2 = c2

Socrates: philosopher accused of teaching his students to question and think for themselves
Click on the link to read more about Socrates. Socrates
Plato: student of Socrates who founded the Academy

Aristotle: studied with Plato and wrote books on physics, poetry, zoology, biology, and politics

Alexander the Great: established an empire from Egypt to India, adopted Greek culture, and spread Hellenistic influences

Phillip II: conquered most of Greece

Hellenistic culture: blend of Greek and oriental elements, spread through trade

Timeline of Ancient Greece: Click on the link to view the history of Ancient Greece. Timeline
Development of the Greek Polis: This flow chart reviews the influence of geography on the rise of the polis in Ancient Greece.Dark_age_Greece_rise_of_polis.jpg(theflowofhistory.com)

Peloponnesian Wars and the Decline of Athens: Read the link for a short discussion of the rise and fall of Athens as a Greek power from 478 BCE to 404 BCE. Athens and WarsThen read the following charts found on <theflowofhistory.com> that summarize the history of Ancient Greece.


The following maps of Ancient Greece can be found on an interactive site by clicking on the link that follows them.
Link for Interactive Maps: Maps Link
Golden Age of Athens: 1. Background on the importance of Athens. Background2. Important artists, scientists, and thinkers. People3. Athenian Acropolis Acropolis4. All about Athens: This link has five sections that tell about life, people's democracy, slaves, and law of Athens. There are also pictures, fun facts trivia, and other links. Ancient Athens

Review Games: Click on the links to review this unit.1. Matching Match2. Challenge Challenge3. Jeopardy Game Jeopardy4. Questions in Jeopardy Format More!5. Athens v. Sparta Rags to Riches6. Questions on Hellenistic Period Hellenism7. Geography and Climate Matching8. Column Match Match9. Study Table List10. Fill in the Blanks Fill ins