UUnit 2: Ancient Rome


SOLs for Ancient Rome: Click on the link for the study map that matches each SOL.
WHI.6a Geography of Rome

  • The city of Rome, with its central location on the Italian peninsula, was able to extend its influence over the entire Mediterranean Basin.

  • The Italian peninsula was protected by the sea and an arc of mountains, the Alps.

WHI.6b Roman Mythology

  • Roman mythology, like Greek mythology, was based upon a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art.

  • Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Roman mythology.

WHI.6c Social Structure

  • Although women, most aliens (non-Romans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy, which became a foundation of modern democracy.

WHI.6d Punic Wars

  • After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture.

WHI.6e/f Republic to Empire

  • The Roman Republic, in the face of changing social and economic conditions, succumbed to civil war and was replaced by an imperial regime, the Roman Empire.

WHI.6g Gov't. & Pax Romana

  • Augustus Caesar established the Roman Empire by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and secure travel and trade throughout the Empire.

  • Following Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana.

WHI.6h & 6i Christianity

  • The followers of Jesus spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, bringing it into conflict with Roman polytheism and eventually changing Western civilization.

  • As the Roman Empire declined in the West, the Church of Rome grew in importance, membership, and influence.

WHI.6j Contributions

  • Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Empire.

  • Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome.

WHI.6k Fall of Roman Empire

  • Over a 300-year period, the western part of the Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and external problems.

Unit Vocabulary:
Alps: offered protection to the Italian peninsula

Jupiter: King of the gods

Juno: Queen of the gods

Diana: goddess of the hunt

Minerva: goddess of wisdom and war

Venus: goddess of love

Patricians: powerful nobility

Plebeians: majority of the population

Representative Democracy: elected officials represent the people

Assemblies: group of people

Senate: state council, shared power with assemblies

Consuls: two people, elected every year during the Republic

Twelve Tables: laws of Rome
Links describing the Twelve Tables: Tables Link #2

Carthage: located in North Africa, fought Rome in Punic Wars
Link for Carthage Carthage
CarthageMap.png(wikipedia.org) Map of Extent of Carthaganian Empire
Hannibal: leader of Carthage during the Second Punic War
Link for Hannibal Hannibal

Gaul: modern-day France
(Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres.)
Gaul had three geographical divisions, one of which was divided into multiple Roman provinces.

Map: Three Provinces of Gaul ca 58 BCE
Julius Caesar: member of the First Triumvirate, in charge of leading soldiers into battle
Quotes from Caesar: Quote
Link for Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar220px-CaesarTusculum.jpg(wikipedia.org)

Inflation: increase in price and fall in the purchasing value of money

Triumvirate: government where three people share the power Link

Augustus Caesar: member of the Second Triumvirate, destroyed Marc Anthony and took command of the Roman World
Link for Augustus Augustus
Marc Anthony: member of the Second Triumvirate, defeated by Octavian (Augustus)
Link for Anthony Marcus Antonius

Pax Romana: Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule
Link for Pax Romana Pax
Jesus Christ: founder of Christianity
Link for Jesus Jesus

New Testament: contains accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus Link

Paul: spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire
Link for Apostle Paul Paul

Pantheon: Roman temple Link

Colosseum: amphitheater used for gladiatorial combat Link
Forum: political and economic centre of Rome during the Republic Link

Aqueducts: carried water Link
Ptolemy: astronomer, mathematician, geographer.

Virgil: wrote Aeneid

Byzantium: city that later became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire Link

Constantinople: the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire Link

Eastern Roman Empire: also known as the Byzantine Empire

Geography of Romegeog_of_rome_text.jpg(www.eduplace.com)Rome_geog_discuss.jpgMap_rome_geog_discuss.jpg

Complete this map activity, using the map your teacher gives you.
Roman Mythology in Modern Culture: banner_rome_gods_goddesses[1].GIF(rome.mrdonn.org)
Do you realize that you talk about Roman mythology every day? Click on the link to see how Roman mythology has influenced the names of school mascots. MythsClick on the next link and try to "remember" who this is. Remember (Yes, the Romans got this name from the Greeks, just like much of the rest of their mythology.)

Rome's Contributions to the World: 800px-Rome-Pantheon-Interieur1.jpg Guess what was used to construct the Pantheon! (wikipedia.org)
This link is the results of an online poll, which asked for Rome's greatest contribution. The results are interesting; concrete came in second! What do you think? Click and find out if you agree with the poll results. Contributions PollChallenge: Take your own poll around the school. You could set the poll up by giving choices from the answers on the online poll. Or you could create your own online poll and distribute it to your friends and neighbors. Survey Monkey has a free, basic plan. Survey
Rome_Empire.jpgRome_Caesar.jpg(eduplace.org)Rome_Emperors.jpgRome_art_squares.jpg(eduplace.org) (www.metmuseum.org)
Causes of the Fall of Rome: Click on the link for a list of causes. Fall of Empire
It's not entirely arbitrary that Medieval/Renaissance History at About.com begins and Ancient/Classical History ends in A.D. 476.Edward Gibbon's 476 date for the Fall of Rome is conventionally acceptable because that's when the Germanic Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor to rule the western part of the Roman Empire. However, the people who lived through the takeover would probably be surprised by the importance we place on this event. And there are other, reasonably momentous dates for the Fall of the Roman Empire.

When Did Rome Fall?

Some say the split into an eastern and western empire governed by separate emperors caused Rome to fall. The eastern half became the Byzantine Empire, with its capital at Constantinople (modern Istanbul). The western half remained centered in Italy. Many say the Fall of Rome was an ongoing process, lasting more than a century. Since Rome still exists, it is argued that it never fell. Some prefer to say that Rome adapted rather than fell. [For some more details, see Decline of Rome.] A related question, one subject to even more discussion is:

Why did Rome Fall?

There are adherents to single factors, but more people think a combination of such factors as Christianity, decadence, lead, monetary trouble, and military problems caused the Fall of Rome. Imperial incompetence and chance could be added to the list. Even the rise of Islam is proposed as the reason for Rome's fall, by some who think the Fall of Rome happened at Constantinople in A.D. 1453. (source: about.com)

Unit Review: Click on the links for games that review this unit.
1. Jeopardy game game
2. The Roman World World
3. Jeopardy-style review Jeopardy
4. Fling the Teacher Fling
5. Historic Pairs (Fast-paced Matching!) Pairs
6. Matching and Concentration Match
7. More Matching More
8. Fall of Rome Short Quiz Quiz
9. Match these, also! Again!
10. Guess what? Matching! Let's Match!