Unit 1: Late Medieval Periodwh_crusades.gifwh_normans.gif(www.phillipmartin.com)Unit SOLs:

  • European monarchies consolidated power and began forming nation-states in the late medieval period


  • Crusades were carried out by Christian political and religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
  • Mongol armies invaded Russia, Southwest Asia, and China, creating an empire
  • Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire


  • In the fourteenth century, the Black Death (Bubonic plague) decimated the population of much of Asia and then the

population of much of Europe


  • Education was largely confined to the clergy during the Middle Ages. The masses were uneducated, while the nobility was

concerned with feudal obligations. Church scholars preserved ancient literature in monasteries in the East and West

Unit Vocabulary:
William the Conqueror – William I of England

Norman Conquest- The taking over of England by William I

Common law – court decisions that became accepted legal principles

Henry II – king of England 1154-1189

King John – forced to sign Magna Carta

Magna Carta – “Great Charter”, limited kings’ power

Hundred Years’ War – war fought between England and France, 1337-1453

Parliament – highest legislature consisting of House of Lords and the House of Commons

Hugh Capet – king of France 987-996, founded Capetian dynasty

Dynasty-ruling family

Joan of Arc – led French armies against English during the Hundred Years War

Ferdinand- Spanish Inquisition, supported Christopher Columbus

Isabella – wife of Ferdinand

Moors – NW African Muslims, mixed Berber and Arab descent

Charles V – ruled the largest collection of land since Charlemagne

Ivan the Great – first Russian ruler to take the title tsar, achieved independence for Russia
Tsar – Russian monarch

Mongols-nomadic tribes united by Genghis Khan

Crusades- attempt by Christians to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims

Pope Urban – launched the First Crusade

Saladin – sultan of Egypt and Syria, re-conquered Jerusalem from the Christians

Ottoman Turks – Osman I founded the Turkish empire in late 13th century

Black Death/Bubonic Plague – epidemic, originated in central Asia. Spread to Europe by fleas on rats, probably on trade ships