Unit 2: The Renaissance in Europe
(www.phillipmartin.com)Unit SOLs:
  • The Crusades stimulated trade by introducing Europeans to many desirable products
  • Trade promoted frequent contacts with the Byzantine and Muslim Empires
  • New economic institutions developed
  • Wealth accumulated from European trade with the Middle East led to the rise of Italian city-states. Wealthy merchants
were active civic leaders
  • Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by
absolute rule
  • The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. Patrons, wealthy from
newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in Northern Italy. Education became increasingly
  • With the rise of trade, travel, and literacy, the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe. The art and literature
changed as people of different cultures adopted Renaissance ideas.
Unit Vocabulary:
Usury – lending money at high interest rated

Letters of credit- promise to pay money borrowed

Florence-Italy. Center of trade and finance. One of richest cities during this time period

Venice-located in Northeast Italy, along Adriatic Sea

Genoa-Northwest Italy, city of Christopher Columbus

City-states- City and its surrounding land

Republics- power held by the people

Absolute rule- ruler maintains all power

Renaissance- “rebirth”. Revival of art and literature

Maciavelli – 1469-1527, political philosopher

The Prince – written by Machiavelli, guide for rulers

Leonardo da Vinci – Italian painter, scientist, and engineer

Mona Lisa – painting by Leonardo da Vinci

The Last Supper – painting by Leonardo da Vinci, of Jesus and his disciples the night before his crucifixition

Michelangelo – Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet

Sistine Chapel – chapel in the Vatican

David – killed Goliath, according to the Bible, sculpted by Michelangelo

Petrarch – Italian poet

Sonnets – poem of fourteen lines using any rhyme schemes

Humanism – system of thought focusing on the human, not the divine

Gutenberg Bible – earliest book to be printed using movable type

Erasmus – Dutch humanist and scholar, 1469-1536

The Praise of Folly – catalyst for the Protestant Reformation

Sir Thomas More – writer and Catholic martyr

Utopia – ideal society